Beware of Overconfident Dating Methods

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first_imgTheir paper in Earth Science Reviews cautions against misinterpretation of zircons even in the title: “Use and abuse of zircon-based thermometers: A critical review and a recommended approach to identify antecrystic zircons.” Antecrystic zircons are units of rock within a zircon that became incorporated before the zircon crystallized. They could have vastly different ratios of parent and daughter elements. Phys.org summarizes the concerns:“One of the assumptions being made is that the composition of the zircons and the rocks in which they have formed give an accurate record of the magmas and conditions at which the zircons and magmas formed,” Associate Professor Bryan said.“From this, we then estimate the age of the event that caused them to form.“But some zircon crystals may not be related to their host rocks at all. They may have come from the source of the magma deep in the Earth’s crust or they may have been picked up by the magma on its way to the surface.“If you don’t distinguish between the types of crystals then you get a big variation in the age of the event which formed the rocks, potentially millions of years, as well as developing incorrect views on the conditions needed to make magmas.The researchers believe they have identified more robust methods for distinguishing “autocrystic” domains (those contemporaneous with crystallization) and “inherited” domains (those picked up from other sources prior to crystallization). And yet they just now are pointing out assumptions that have been made by other geologists for decades. This leads to the question: what assumptions are these geologists making about their own preferred methods? Indeed, the paper uses “assume” or “assumption” two dozen times, and admits that “determining the emplacement age of plutonic rocks can be difficult.” For instance, the authors say,Importantly, some widely accepted petrogenetic models can now be viewed as being based on inappropriate assumptions made using these thermometers. We detail here some flawed assumptions made for a few petrogenetic studies, as well as their implications for wider debates in Earth Sciences.It’s not hard to imagine a future paper calling into question the assumptions in this paper.See our article from 3/25/13 about “The trouble with zircons,” which relays information from geological papers that cast doubt on the interpretations given to these “most commonly used” geochronometers. Are secular geologists within the ballpark at least, “give or take a couple million years or so”? ICR’s RATE project found a serious anomaly in zircons recovered from deep drilling. They contained far too much helium from radioactive decay to have been there millions of years; in fact, curve fitting showed them to be concordant with an age of only 6,000 years (see ICR article). This wipes out the evolutionists’ date, including the error bars as well. Another interpretation of the helium results suggests accelerated nuclear decay had occurred at some time in the past (ICR), though a mechanism for that is still unknown. One theory proposed by Walt Brown suggests rapid production of radioactive elements through a known nuclear process called the Z-pinch (layman explanation at Real Science Radio). Our purpose here is not to choose between alternative models, but to show that alternatives exist, and are even mandated by anomalies in the observed data compared to evolutionary theories. The main point of this entry is the importance of distinguishing fact from interpretation, especially when analyzing confident-sounding presentations made for a less-discerning public. Secular geologists are highly motivated to make things look old, because their idol, the Bearded Buddha, needs the time to work his magic.(Visited 656 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0 Simplistic presentations about how scientists date rocks overlook the worldview assumptions involved.A cartoony video from the American Chemical Society and PBS Digital Studios oversimplifies the matter of dating rocks. Titled “How do we know the age of the Earth?”, written and delivered apparently by a homosexual who calls a boxer named Rock “dreamy” as if he wishes to “date” him, the video begins with an assertion: “The Earth is 4.565 billion years old, give or take a couple million years or so. How do scientists know that?” The video proceeds to explain radiometric dating in simple terms, leaving only tiny bits of doubt at the end: “Not that they are satisfied, of course; geochemists are still fine-tuning their estimates of the age of the earth and looking for more evidence to support or diminish their theories.” The overall impression, though, is that dates of rocks and meteorites are well established down to four significant figures.As the video admits in the opening sentences, however, “There’s no ‘Established In’ plaque stuck on a cliff somewhere.” And obviously, no human has experienced millions of years, let alone billions. No date can be calculated, therefore, without making assumptions. These include amounts of parent material in the original sample, constancy of decay rates, and conditions that might have altered the rock since formation. Since “earth is an active place,” the narrator explains, there aren’t many samples known that can give earth’s age. For that reason, “Geologists love dating meteorites,” he says. “We might even call them rock stars. They’re like time capsules that crash into the earth.” A hidden assumption there is that meteorites did not undergo alteration in space. That assumption relies on theories of solar system formation. Unfortunately for the overconfident, those theories are plagued with anomalies.Credit: Queensland University of TechnologyThe video makes a big deal over zircons. These hard minerals, often containing uranium, are presumed to lock in the parent and daughter elements. But take a look at a picture in Phys.org’s article, “Zircon as Earth’s timekeeper: Are we reading the clock right?” The photo shows a zircon crystal with two spots differing by 20 million years, within the same rock! What’s going on? Geologists from the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) offer these warnings about dating zircons:Zircon crystals in igneous rocks must be carefully examined and not relied upon solely to predict future volcanic eruptions and other tectonic events, QUT researchers have shown.Zircon is a robust mineral and a timekeeper of Earth historyDistinguishing the origins of zircon crystals, their individual chemistry and properties is not straightforwardMisinterpreting data from zircon crystals could skew timescales for geological events such as volcanic eruptions by millions of yearsThis has implications for understanding volcanic hazards and the future risks they poselast_img

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Scoreboard roundup — 11/5/19

first_imgNovember 6, 2019 /Sports News – National Scoreboard roundup — 11/5/19 Beau Lund Written bycenter_img FacebookTwitterLinkedInEmailiStock(NEW YORK) — Here are the scores from Tuesday’s sports events:NATIONAL BASKETBALL ASSOCIATIONCharlotte 122, Indiana 120 — OTBoston 119, Cleveland 113Atlanta 108, San Antonio 100L.A. Lakers 118, Chicago 112Oklahoma City 102, Orlando 94Denver 109, Miami 89NATIONAL HOCKEY LEAGUEVegas 2 Columbus 1NY Islanders 4 Ottawa 1Philadelphia 4 Carolina 1Montreal 5 Boston 4Toronto 3 Los Angeles 1New Jersey 2 Winnipeg 1 — SODallas 4 Colorado 1Calgary 4, Arizona 3 — OTMinnesota 4, Anaheim 2St. Louis 2, Vancouver 1 — OT San Jose 4, Chicago 2TOP-25 COLLEGE BASKETBALLBaylor 105, Cent. Arkansas 61Louisville 87, Miami 74Seton Hall 105, Wagner 71Duke 68, Kansas 66Florida 74, North Florida 59VCU 72, St. Francis 58Xavier 76, Jacksonville 57Maryland 95, Holy Cross 71Gonzaga 95, Alabama St. 64Memphis 97, SC State 64Texas Tech 85, E. Illinois 60Villanova 97, Army 54Auburn 83, Georgia Southern 74Oregon 71, Fresno St. 57Saint Mary’s 65, Wisconsin 63 — OTUtah St. 81, Montana St. 73Kentucky 69, Michigan St. 62Copyright © 2019, ABC Audio. All rights reserved.last_img

Are lock-ups the key to solving London’s housing crisis?

first_imgLondon’s housing crisis could be eased if the capital’s 22,000 unused lock up garages were to be turned into 16,000 one-bedroom flats, it has been claimed.Property crowdfunding platform Property Partner canvassed London’s 32 London boroughs to find out how many lock-up garages each one owned, and how many of them were rented out.It found that there are 53,640 lock-ups in the capital but that 41% of them are either empty or in a state of disrepair.The boroughs with the largest property of empty lock-ups include Ealing (74%), Havering (72%), Brent (71% and Enfield ((70%) which between them have over 6,000 garages lying idle.Property Partner says the unused garages were sold and the land given over to developers, some 16, 100 one-bedroom 500 sq ft apartments could be built in their place, and if multi-storey blocks built in their place instead, 64,000 flats built.The London assembly recently said London needs between 49,000 and 80,000 extra homes built every year to keep up with demand.“When we have a crisis in affordable housing not just in the capital but in the UK, it begs the question whether councils in Britain should either sell off the land for development or build new homes themselves,” says Dan Gandesh, CEO of Property Partner (pictured).“If a significant number of council garages, which are part of housing estates, are not even rented to those who should have a right to them – local authority tenants – then it could be argued that this is a wasted opportunity.”lock up garages Property Partner January 16, 2017Nigel LewisWhat’s your opinion? Cancel replyYou must be logged in to post a comment.Please note: This is a site for professional discussion. Comments will carry your full name and company.This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.Related articles Letting agent fined £11,500 over unlicenced rent-to-rent HMO3rd May 2021 BREAKING: Evictions paperwork must now include ‘breathing space’ scheme details30th April 2021 City dwellers most satisfied with where they live30th April 2021 Home » News » Land & New Homes » Are lock-ups the key to solving London’s housing crisis? previous nextLand & New HomesAre lock-ups the key to solving London’s housing crisis?Building new homes in place of unused council garages could create 22,000 more apartments in the capital, claims websiteNigel Lewis16th January 20170962 Viewslast_img

ABA Commission Sees Need For ‘Regulatory Innovations’ In Legal Profession

first_imgMarilyn Odendahl for www.theindianalawyer.comFinding the need for legal services among the poor and moderate-income greater than legal aid and pro bono can satisfy, an American Bar Association commission is advocating for the consideration of “regulatory innovations” which include non-lawyer ownership of legal service providers.The ABA Commission on the Future of Legal Services released its findings and suggestions Friday for providing legal assistance to those who cannot afford an attorney. A product of two years of study, the 96-page “Report on the Future of Legal Services in the United States” offered 12 broad recommendations ranging from embracing technology for the delivery of legal services to putting more resources into traditional legal aid and pro bono efforts.“The legal profession, as the steward of the justice system, has reached an inflection point,” the commission stated in the report. “Without significant change, the profession cannot ensure that the justice system serves everyone and that the rule of law is preserved. Innovation, and even unconventional thinking, is required.”Driving the need for change is the growing numbers of those who do not have access to affordable legal services.The commission found that most people living in poverty and the majority of moderate-income households do not receive the legal help they need. Largely, these individuals either cannot afford a lawyer or they do not realize their problem requires the help of an attorney. In addition, the traditional business model of law offices constrains innovations that, the commission maintained, would enable greater access to and enhance the delivery of legal services.Among the recommendations is the call for the continued examination of alternative business structures. In an issues paper released in April 2016, the commission noted these structures typically allow non-lawyers to own law firms, invest in law practices or operate as a multidisciplinary practice which provides both legal and non-legal services.Reaction to the issues paper was strong and divided.The ABA Section of Family Law provided a two-sentence response that asked, “WHAT PART OF ‘NO!’ DO YOU NOT UNDERSTAND? We remain unalterably opposed to these repeated, previously failed efforts to foist ABS upon on profession or our ethics.”Similarly, the Illinois State Bar Association raised concerns about the effect non-lawyers would have on the core values of the legal profession. The ISBA feared the pressure would increase on generating a greater profit which would reduce individualized care while reducing the desire to take on unpopular causes or do pro bono work.On the other side, LegalZoom and Avvo supported easing regulations.In a 10-page response, LegalZoom asserted, “It is time to examine the system that lawyers created and practice in, and the self-granted monopoly that lawyers legislate, regulate and adjudicate. If the profession can look past the fear-mongering of entrenched Luddities, and re-look (at) the purpose behind what has become innovation-crushing regulations to address supply, not only will the industry see quantum leaps in legal access, it will see a call for more, not fewer, lawyers!”The ABA Business Law Section’s Ad Hoc Working Group on the Future of the Delivery of Legal Services applauded the commission for exploring innovation proposals. It also underscored the need to not only provide legal assistance to the public but also to ensure consumers are protected.“There is a clear recognition that changes are in the wind and that it would be a disservice to our profession and the public to not provide for a structure for change,” the Ad Hoc Working Group wrote.The ABA Commission on the Future of Legal Services acknowledged the opposition to alternative business structures. However, it pointed to studies from the United Kingdom and Australia that have shown that these structures have not harmed clients and consumers nor deteriorated lawyers’ ethics or professional independence.The commission reiterated that ABS should continue to be explored and, in conjunction, that data should be collected to further assess the risks and benefits.On a related issue, the commission also advocated for states to explore the increasingly wide array of entities that employ new technologies and internet-based platforms to provide legal services directly to the public. Although conceding these businesses operate without the oversight of courts or judicial regulatory authorities, the commission advised caution and careful study before adopting any new rules.Greenwood, Indiana, attorney Patrick Olmstead Jr. responded to the issues paper that was submitted on the legal service providers. He maintained that any company offering legal services should be subject to the Rules of Professional Conduct and be liable for professional negligence.“Although most of my information is anecdotal, I believe that some clients suffer harm because documents with legal consequences are drafted poorly or the documents were not suitable for the client’s situation,” Olmstead wrote. “If a lawyer drafted those documents, the lawyer could be liable for negligence. I would like to see these legal services companies held to the same standard of care as attorneys, and follow the same rules governing lawyers, to protect the public.”FacebookTwitterCopy LinkEmailSharelast_img

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