Paywhatyouwant choices appear to be linked to self image

first_img Explore further Corporate social responsibility and profit could stem from pricing strategy This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In the first experiment riders at an amusement park were given the opportunity to buy pictures of themselves on the ride and were told they could pay whatever they wanted. Some were also told that half the proceeds would go to a charity; in those cases customers quite often paid more than those that weren’t told about the charity, though the number of sales were lower.In a second experiment, some customers on boat rides were asked to pay $15, some $5 and the others whatever they wanted, for pictures of themselves. Not surprisingly, the $15 group had few takers, while the $5 option proved popular, even more so than the PWYW option, as more chose to pass on the photos altogether when given the opportunity to pay whatever they liked.In the third experiment, diners at a restaurant were asked to pay whatever price they chose for their meal, but were split into two groups. One group paid the owner of the restaurant directly, while the other group was allowed to pay privately by dropping an envelope into a box. Surprisingly, the group that was able to pay anomalously generally paid more than did those that paid the owner directly.The researchers say taken as a whole, these experiments show that people are motivated by several factors when presented with a PWYW opportunity; the most basic of which, is the desire to uphold their opinion of themselves. Giving more than is necessary in an anonymous way causes people to feel good about themselves. On the other hand, the offer is less appealing when being asked to pay in view of others, such as fellow patrons or the owner of a restaurant. In such a scenario, people feel forced into paying a certain price. They also shy away from opportunities when they feel pressured to buy at a price that is too high, hence those that choose to not buy at all, even when allowed to pay whatever they wanted. More information: Pay-what-you-want, identity, and self-signaling in markets, PNAS, Published online before print April 23, 2012, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1120893109AbstractWe investigate the role of identity and self-image consideration under “pay-what-you-want” pricing. Results from three field experiments show that often, when granted the opportunity to name the price of a product, fewer consumers choose to buy it than when the price is fixed and low. We show that this opt-out behavior is driven largely by individuals’ identity and self-image concerns; individuals feel bad when they pay less than the “appropriate” price, causing them to pass on the opportunity to purchase the product altogether. © 2012 Phys.Org Citation: Pay-what-you-want choices appear to be linked to self image (2012, April 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-04-pay-what-you-want-choices-linked-image.html Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Phys.org) — Panera, the national restaurant chain most famous for its bread, has been in the news of late because they’ve decided to test the concept of allowing customers to pay whatever they want for bread, sandwiches and salads. The concept has proved so successful that Panera plans to open more restaurants that do likewise. To find out why such an idea might work, a group of researchers put together several field experiments to test their belief that the amount people pay for a pay-what-you-want (PWYW) opportunity, likely depends on their desire to boost their own self image. They have published a paper documenting their findings in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.last_img read more

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Artist to send picture disc into orbit to serve as time capsule

first_img Explore further Toshiba Announces 51GB Triple-Layer HD DVD-ROM Disc (Phys.org)—Multimedia artist Trevor Paglen, part of a group known as Creative Time, has created a gold-plated crystalline silicon disc with bit mapped re-creations of photographs etched onto its surface. The disc is to serve as a form of time capsule that will orbit Earth for billions of years—if all goes according to plan. The disc, containing 100 images and referred to as the “Last Pictures” project, has been attached to the EchoStar XVI satellite, scheduled for launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome sometime over the next few months. © 2012 Phys.org The idea behind the project is to provide a record of human existence to intelligent life forms—as yet undiscovered—from other parts of the galaxy. The group at Creative Time notes on their website that they expect human civilization to disappear long before the disc is destroyed by the Sun, five billion years from now when the Sun becomes a red giant. They believe the disc, along with its images, will survive. Because, unlike the copper discs sent with the Voyager spacecraft, it’s made of silicon which has a crystalline structure.Paglen has been assembling the collection of pictures for nearly five years, speaking with scientists, artists, geologists, philosophers and mathematicians about ways in which to represent the history of Earth’s people. Despite his work, Paglen has also spoken publicly about his belief that no one will ever find the disc and view his work. Also, his assumption that the disc will survive in orbit for billions of years might have one fatal flaw: it’s quite possible that scientists will develop a method to clear the space debris circling the planet, consequently removing the EchoStar XVI satellite from its geosynchronous orbit long before we as a civilization go extinct. Which, of course, is also not a certainty. The pictures aren’t meant to offer a chronological history of the planet or of the human beings that evolved to become its dominant species. Instead, they are meant to convey a sense of who we are in the event that “anyone else” ever wants to know. Citation: Artist to send picture disc into orbit to serve as time capsule (2012, October 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-artist-picture-disc-orbit-capsule.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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Study finds bumblebees able to fly as high as Mount Everest

first_img Journal information: Biology Letters Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Study finds bumblebees able to fly as high as Mount Everest (2014, February 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-02-bumblebees-high-mount-everest.html More information: Surpassing Mt. Everest: extreme flight performance of alpine bumble-bees, Published 5 February 2014. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0922AbstractAnimal flight at altitude involves substantial aerodynamic and physiological challenges. Hovering at high elevations is particularly demanding from the dual perspectives of lift and power output; nevertheless, some volant insects reside and fly at elevations in excess of 4000 m. Here, we demonstrate that alpine bumble-bees possess substantial aerodynamic reserves, and can sustain hovering flight under hypobaria at effective elevations in excess of 9000 m, i.e. higher than Mt. Everest. Modulation of stroke amplitude and not wingbeat frequency is the primary means of compensation for overcoming the aerodynamic challenge. The presence of such excess capacity in a high-altitude bumble-bee is surprising and suggests intermittent behavioural demands for extreme flight performance supplemental to routine foraging.center_img (Phys.org) —A pair of researchers has found that alpine bumblebees are able to fly at altitudes in excess of twenty nine thousand simulated feet—higher than Mount Everest. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, Michael Dillon and Robert Dudley, of the University of California and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, respectively, describe experiments they conducted with alpine bumblebees in pressure chambers and their theories as to why the bees have such high flying skills. Image credit: Wikipedia. 1st ‘zombie’ bees on East Coast found in Vt. (Update) Bees aren’t the best flyers, of course, they can zig-zag around and hop from flower to flower, but they could never compete with most birds or many other insects for that matter. But they are able to do something remarkable nonetheless—fly at extremely high altitude. To discover this remarkable ability, Dillon and Dudley traveled to the mountains of Sichuan, China; once there they captured several specimens of alpine bumblebees who normally live and fly at altitudes of over 10,000 feet. They put the bees (one at a time) into a pressure chamber and then pumper air out to simulate various altitudes. In so doing they found that two of the bees were able to fly around in the chamber in conditions that simulated 29,527 feet.To better understand how it was that the bees were able to fly under such conditions, each was filmed with a high speed camera and audio recorded (to measure wing beats). In studying the sound and video, the researchers found that the bees did not increase the speed of wing flapping but instead moved them in much deeper arcs, allowing for more scooping of air with each beat.The research duo suggest the bees high-flying technique is more likely put to a different use in the their natural environment—it would help in moving faster to escape being eaten, and even more perhaps in carrying heavy loads of nectar.Still a mystery is how the bees were able to maintain their wing flapping with far less oxygen to breathe—their metabolisms normally run much faster than most creatures—with less oxygen in the pressure tank, they should have literally run out of breath. Dillon and Dudley plan to conduct more experiments with the bees to answer that question.last_img read more

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Computer model shows continents sometimes push others out of the way w

first_imgWe see the same pattern in modern collisions at large and small scales. This image shows the collision between India and Asia (the deformation front is shown in red again) and the associated stretching and extension behind the indonesian subduction zone. The collision continues even when the red subduction zone is choked by mountain building because the green areas retreat and allow the indian ocean floor to keep subducting. This keeps the engine running. Credit: Louis Moresi using the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center, 2006. 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2v2), and imagery from the NASA Visible Earth Blue Marble Play Evolution of the model with the 80 Myr old slab (grey with yellow grid) and weaker overriding plate (blue with light blue grid). The indenter is shown in red. The strain rate field close to the surface is superimposed on the colouring of the material domains to show high strain rates as red tones and intermediate strain rates in yellow/green. Credit: Moresi et al. (Phys.org) —A team of researchers at the University of Melbourne in Australia has created a computer model that accurately predicts some aspects of mountain formation in early Australian history and has now described a new theory suggesting why the Himalayas continue to grow. In their paper, published in the journal Nature, the team describes how their model is challenging previously held theories regarding what happens when continental plates collide. Play Evolution of the model with the 80Myr old slab viewed from beneath the overriding plate looking towards the incoming indenting ribbon. The white/red balls are finite strain markers located under the oceanic plate at the start of the simulation. Credit: Moresi et al. Pleased with their findings, the team next turned to the Himalayas, home to most of the tallest mountains in the world. Scientists have been wondering for years why it is that India keeps pushing north into Eurasia, rather than stopping, as has occurred with the Alps. The new model showed India pushing parts of China and South-Eat Asia aside as it continues to move north, causing the continual rise in height of the mountains there. Explore further PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen The new computer model can’t prove what it illustrates but does appear to be a new step forward in explaining how our planet came to look like it does to today, and perhaps what it will look like in the future. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreencenter_img Journal information: Nature More information: Dynamics of continental accretion, Nature (2014) doi:10.1038/nature13033AbstractSubduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth’s history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides1, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia2. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback3 and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening4, 5, 6, 7, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.Press release Earth’s past gives clues to future changes The planet is still evolving, despite what our eyes tell us. The continents, for example, are all moving—some of them are even crashing into one another causing earthquakes and mountain formation. The surface of the Earth is divided into several pieces known as plates, each of which is still moving in one direction or another. When such plates run into others, one of two things can happen: one can slip beneath the other, or the two can smash together causing great upheaval which results in the formation of mountains. Scientists studying plate movement have been trying to predict what will happen when collisions occur—whether there will be subduction or mountain formation, and if it’s the latter, what sorts of features the mountains will have. In this new effort, the researchers in Australia appear to have taken a step forward in doing just that.To gain a better understanding of exactly what occurs when plates collide, the researchers built a computer model that used data and information compiled from prior research. They then added a new idea, in which continents can be squeezed upwards as other parts are pushed aside. They then set the model’s clock back in time to see if it could predict what we see around us today. Remarkably, in the case of one ancient small plate running into Australia, the model proved surprisingly accurate—creating realistic renditions of a mountain range that currently exists in eastern Australia—it even revealed how several formations could have come to exist that had defied earlier explanation. Citation: Computer model shows continents sometimes push others out of the way (w/ video) (2014, March 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-03-continents-video.html © 2014 Phys.org The researchers interpret the complicated geology of South Eastern Australia as having been formed by the collision of an exotic terrane (VanDieland) in the Silurian period over 400 million years ago. We see evidence for a swirling pattern in the geological fabric of Australia which supports this idea. Mountain building at the front of the collision (red) and crustal thinning and stretching along the side and behind the terrane (green) are consistent with our model. Credit: Louis Moresi, Peter Betts and Ross Cayley using data available from Geoscience Australia at the Geophysical Archive Data Delivery Systemlast_img read more

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Color pixels made of nanowires offer new paradigm for digital cameras

first_img © 2014 Phys.org. All rights reserved. In the new study, the researchers successfully fabricated 100 x 100 arrays of vertical nanowires with radii of 80, 100, 120, and 140 nm, allowing the nanowires to absorb different wavelengths of light. The researchers demonstrated that these nanowire-based photodetectors can photograph color images of test scenes and the Macbeth ColorChecker card with a quality that is very similar to that obtained with a conventional camera.The new filter-free color imaging technique has some key advantages compared with the conventional filter technique, with perhaps the most important being a higher absorption efficiency that allows for higher pixel densities and higher resolution. The researchers predict that adding a bottom photodetector to the nanowire array would make it possible, in principle, for the device to absorb all incoming light and convert it into photocurrent. Such a device has the potential for extremely high photon efficiencies compared to filter-based devices, which by their nature absorb approximately half of the incoming light before it reaches the image sensor. The greater efficiency would then pave the way for cameras with higher resolutions. In addition to an improved efficiency, this approach simplifies the fabrication process. As the researchers explain, the pixels with different color responses can be defined at the same time through a single lithography step.Furthermore, the nanowire-based photodetectors also offer the opportunity for multispectral imaging. Cameras use multispectral imaging to capture light at different frequencies of the spectrum, including frequencies beyond the visible light range. With the new method, different parts of the spectrum can be targeted for absorption by fabricating nanowires with specific radii, a relatively simple process compared to fabricating filters and other methods. The researchers plan to work on further improving the photodetectors in the future.”We are currently working on incorporating substrate photodetectors to increase the efficiency as we mentioned above,” said coauthor Hyunsung Park at Harvard University. “In addition, we are developing elliptical nanowire-based photodetectors for polarization-resolved imaging. The major hurdle for commercialization is the higher dark current level of these devices, due to the fact they are produced by etching. This comes from the fact that there are many surface states, due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of the nanowires and damage to the silicon crystal structure from dry etching. We believe that this will be resolved in the future through alternative fabrication process or by adding passivation layers.” More information: Hyunsung Park, et al. “Filter-Free Image Sensor Pixels Comprising Silicon Nanowires with Selective Color Absorption.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/nl404379w The new approach takes advantage of the unique optical and electrical properties of one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires. Previous research has demonstrated that silicon nanowires absorb wavelengths of light that vary with the nanowire radius, allowing for control of light absorption by fabricating nanowires with controlled radii using a single lithography step. However, no color imaging experiments have been performed with silicon nanowires until now, partly due to the difficulty in assembling large numbers of nanowires into arrays. In the past few years, researchers have been investigating new ways to achieve color in digital cameras that don’t rely on conventional organic dye filters. In a new paper published in Nano Letters, a team of researchers from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Zena Technologies Inc., in Topsfield, Massachusetts, have presented a new filter-free approach to color imaging. The technique uses silicon nanowires with different radii to absorb specific wavelengths, and thus colors, of light and convert the light into photocurrent.”Our nanowire-based approach performs color imaging without conventional color filters,” coauthor Kenneth B. Crozier of Harvard University told Phys.org. “This has two major advantages. First, our approach simplifies the fabrication process. Nanowire-based image sensor pixels with different color responses can be defined at the same time through a single lithography step. This means no additional materials or repeated deposition steps are needed for separating colors. Second, our approach opens the way to increase the efficiency of an image sensor. Each nanowire captures light of a specific color, and converts it to photocurrent. If we add substrate photodetector, we can capture the remainder of the spectrum. In this way, the image sensor can have higher efficiency, as photons would be not discarded by absorptive filters.” Color image of test objects taken by the nanowire-based photodetector. Credit: Park, et al. ©2014 American Chemical Society Citation: Color pixels made of nanowires offer new paradigm for digital cameras (2014, April 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-04-pixels-nanowires-paradigm-digital-cameras.html Engineers create vibrant colors in vertical silicon nanowires (Left) Schematic of photodetectors based on vertical silicon nanowires. (Center) Magnified view of nanowires with radii of 80 nm, 100 nm, 120 nm, and 140 nm. (Right) Fabricated device mounted on PCB, with a magnified image in the inset. Credit: Park, et al. ©2014 American Chemical Society (Phys.org) —Most of today’s digital cameras achieve color by using red, green, and blue Bayer color filters through which light passes on its way to the camera’s image sensors, which then convert the light into electrical signals. Although this color filter technology is very widespread, it has some disadvantages related to durability, low absorption coefficient, and fabrication complexity. In addition, the absorbed light in the color filter cannot be converted into photocurrent. To maximize the efficiency in the trends of higher pixel density, this light needs to be converted to photocurrent. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nano Letters Explore furtherlast_img read more

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Plant species evolved a way to determine most promising pollinator

first_img Because they have no eyes, or brains to process visual information, it would seem that plants do not have much choice in which sorts of birds or insects transfer pollen to or from them, but in the case of one flowering plant, it appears a way has evolved nonetheless to ignore the pollen deposited by one species of bird, while favoring that from another.As part of their study of the plant, the researchers found that it was not very receptive to being artificially pollinated, this got them wondering if the plants were as choosy with natural pollinators, so they captured several of them and released them into an aviary where they could be studied more closely. In tracking which flowers were visited by different types of humming birds and one type of butterfly, the researchers found a pattern—the plants seemed more receptive to the hummingbird species that had long curved beaks. Further testing confirmed their suspicions. But how could the plants demonstrate a preference? Suspecting it had to do with the longer bills, the researchers tried pollinating the plants with a longer pipette and found it a more successful technique. Taking their study further, they found that a longer pipette or bill on a bird allowed for sucking up more of the nectar the plant was offering, and that turned out to be the means by which the plant did its choosing—those that took more nectar were in turn more likely to see their pollen accepted by the plant. Citation: Plant species evolved a way to determine most promising pollinator (2015, March 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-03-species-evolved-pollinator.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org Heliconia tortuosa flowers Explore further As for why the plant would prefer long billed hummingbirds over those with short bills, the researchers suggest it is because those with long bills are the same species that travel farther while pollinating. That would mean the flower was more likely to receive pollen from a distant, unrelated plant, thus promoting diversity.center_img Gene may help reduce GM contamination The green hermit hummingbird extracts nectar from a Heliconia tortuosa flower. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers has found that one species of flower is able to pick and choose when it comes to accepting pollen from a variety of pollinators. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Matthew Betts and Adam Hadley with Oregon State University and John Kress with the Smithsonian Institution, describe their study of Heliconia tortuosa, a flowering plant native to Costa Rica, and what they discovered about its pollinating abilities. More information: Pollinator recognition by a keystone tropical plant Matthew G. Betts, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1419522112AbstractUnderstanding the mechanisms enabling coevolution in complex mutualistic networks remains a central challenge in evolutionary biology. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a tropical plant species has the capacity to discriminate among floral visitors, investing in reproduction differentially across the pollinator community. After we standardized pollen quality in 223 aviary experiments, successful pollination of Heliconia tortuosa (measured as pollen tube abundance) occurred frequently when plants were visited by long-distance traplining hummingbird species with specialized bills (x¯ pollen tubes = 1.21 ± 0.12 SE) but was reduced 5.7 times when visited by straight-billed territorial birds (x¯ pollen tubes = 0.20 ± 0.074 SE) or insects. Our subsequent experiments revealed that plants use the nectar extraction capacity of tropical hummingbirds, a positive function of bill length, as a cue to turn on reproductively. Furthermore, we show that hummingbirds with long bills and high nectar extraction efficiency engaged in daily movements at broad spatial scales (∼1 km), but that territorial species moved only short distances (<100 m). Such pollinator recognition may therefore affect mate selection and maximize receipt of high-quality pollen from multiple parents. Although a diffuse pollinator network is implied, because all six species of hummingbirds carry pollen of H. tortuosa, only two species with specialized bills contribute meaningfully to its reproduction. We hypothesize that this pollinator filtering behavior constitutes a crucial mechanism facilitating coevolution in multispecies plant–pollinator networks. However, pollinator recognition also greatly reduces the number of realized pollinators, thereby rendering mutualistic networks more vulnerable to environmental change.Press releaselast_img read more

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Boeing demonstrates lightest metal ever

first_imgThe team at HRL suggest that the material could also eventually make its way into space-bound vehicles, for the very same reasons it would be useful in aircraft, to save on weight—plus its ability to compress might mean sending up objects that could be expanded after launch, saving on space in a cargo hold. © 2015 Phys.org The more an airplane weighs, the more fuel it uses during takeoff, while flying and during landing, thus efforts to create lighter materials to replace those already in use have been underway for quite some time. The development team has released a video of the new material (in which they refer to it as a 3D open cellular polymer structure) in action—demonstrating its lightness by placing a rectangular cuboid atop a dandelion. The team also points out that the material also has a high degree of absorption, which means it can be depressed and bounce back—another feature that would come in handy on airplanes.It appears at this time that Boeing is hoping the material can be used inside the cabin, rather than as a major structural component, e.g. in overhead bins, under the floor, or in other fixtures that are used to create an environment inside of a modern aircraft.In the earlier paper the researchers described making the material first by creating a template and then by coating it with electroless nickel plating—afterwards the template was removed via etching. The result was a material that got its strength from the lattice, similar to the way bones grow to be strong despite being light, though with the lattice it is taken down to the micro scale—the lattice was a network of extremely tiny tubes with walls that had a thickness of just 100 nanometers, all made of a nickel-phosphorus alloy, though it is still not clear if the same materials were used in the newly updated microlattice. Citation: Boeing demonstrates lightest metal ever (2015, October 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-boeing-lightest-metal.html HRL’s breakthrough development of ultralight microlattice materials recognized Journal information: Sciencecenter_img Explore further (Phys.org)—Airplane maker Boeing has unveiled what it calls the “The Lightest Metal Ever”—called microlattice, the material is a construct that is 99.99 per cent air. It has been developed by Boeing’s HRL Laboratories along with colleagues at the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. The material has been developed as a way to reduce weight on airplanes or even rockets—a paper describing the development of the material was written by the team and published in the journal Science back in 2011—though the researchers have not yet revealed what sort of changes have been made since that time. More information: www.boeing.com/features/2015/1 … est-metal-10-15.page This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.last_img read more

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A closer look at the molecular mechanism that switches control of activation

first_img © 2019 Science X Network Credit: RIKEN This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: A closer look at the molecular mechanism that switches control of activation of eIF2 by eIF2B (2019, May 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-closer-molecular-mechanism-eif2-eif2b.html Impaired energy metabolism linked with initiation of plaques in Alzheimer’s brain Cells continuously undergo a process known as translation in which ribosomes in cytoplasm synthesize proteins after transcription of DNA to RNA. But sometimes, this process is interrupted by an external event. Such events are known as stress—exposure to ultraviolet light is one common example. The researchers note that translation uses a lot of energy, thus it makes sense for cells to shut it down when a stress event occurs—it saves energy and reduces the chances of errors in the proteins that are synthesized.Prior research has shown that when a cell “senses” stress, the translational initiation factor eIF2 is phosphorylated. Under normal circumstances, eIF2 is activated by eIF2B, another translational initiation factor. But when the cell is under stress and eIF2 is phosphorylated, the function of eIF2B is inhibited, preventing translation. Scientists have been working to understand the molecular mechanism involved in discontinuation of translation due to stress, but the means of activation of eIF2 by eIF2B is still unknown. In this new effort, the researchers have found a way to look inside the cell nucleus to see what actually happens as syntheses of proteins ceases during stress.The researchers observed the structure of both eIF2 and eIF2B using cryo-electron microscopy. Doing so showed that the orientation of eIF2 as it was bound to eIF2B differed greatly depending on whether eIF2 had been phosphorylated. They also found that eIF2B had a two-fold symmetric structure and that the phosphorylation of eIF2 could be considered a mechanism that not only prevented the activation of phosphorylated eIF2, but also prevented the activation of other translational initiation factors.center_img A team of researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research in Japan has developed a tool to prevent neurogenerative diseases. They have demonstrated a way to observe the molecular mechanism that switches control of activation of eIF2 by eIF2B when a cell undergoes stress. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their use of cryo-electron microscopy to better understand what happens to cells that are exposed to stress. Explore further Journal information: Science More information: Kazuhiro Kashiwagi et al. Structural basis for eIF2B inhibition in integrated stress response, Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw4104last_img read more

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Tuck in an extra helping for the Earth

first_imgWhile the rest of the Delhi swelters in the heat, the Imperial gave a lucky few a luxurious break to taste some zesty green recipes and join heads to talk environmental issues. Celebrating this ethos and committing to the environment, The Imperial had organized Green Luncheon for opinion makers to share a range of initiatives which the hotel has applied to reduce carbon footprint, have effective waste management, sustain recycle measures and energy conservation etc. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ The luncheon included specialties like vegetable and cream cheese spanakopitas, sautéed greens with sesame and brown garlic, spinach and fresh ricotta cannelloni with butter garlic, ratatouille, Vanilla panacotta and some salads to die for. The special menu was designed by Chef Prem Kumar Pogakula- Executive Sous Chef The Imperial New Delhi.‘The Imperial has always demonstrated a commitment to environment conservation, whilst providing its guests with experiences which will enhance the awareness and understanding of the environment. We installed solar panels for heating water in guest rooms which is extremely efficient in saving energy, emits less carbon and thereby is environment friendly,’ said Vijay Wanchoo Senior Executive Vice President and General Manager.  He further said ‘The Imperial key initiatives and significant efforts have been modeled to encourage healthy tourism and eco balance. An exclusive lobby décor for the occasion for the world Environment week is designed to create awareness amongst guests to contribute towards environment conservation and be conscious about it.’ He also shared few future green initiatives on the occasion, soon to be implemented in the hotel. The special recipes made for the World Environment day are available in the 1911 restaurant along with the perfect salad spread. The light eats are best suited for summer and will be available in the restaurant till 30 June. The mint and raw mango shooter and the wild mushroom and asparagus stew get the thumbs up from us. Go green, reduce the carbon foorprints as the experts put it and head over for this meal – you won’t regret it!last_img read more

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LG Jung asked to improve condition of night shelters

first_imgThe Delhi BJP on Thursday visited night shelters situated at ISBT, Ajmeri Gate Chowk, Nehru Place, Gole Dankhana, Sultanpuri, Mangolpuri, Rohini and Patparganj and found that the arrangements were not at all satisfactory. Later, they wrote a letter to the Lieutenant-Governor (LG) Najeeb Jung seeking his attention towards the condition of these night shelters and demanding improvements.In the letter, BJP state president Satish Upadhyay said that it is very regrettable that in spite of strict directions from the High Court between 2012 to 2014, during the tenure of the then Congress and AAP governments and bureaucrats respectively, the condition of these night shelters have become bad to worse. He said that the visiting team of Delhi BJP found that most of the night shelters either did not have toilets or are very dirty and cannot be used. There is an urgent need to work for the improvement of these night shelters.   Also Read – Company director arrested for swindling Rs 345 croreIn the Nehru Place night shelter, the BJP team found that a particular community had converted the night shelter into their 24 hour house and installed make shift ovens. There was no water supply in the toilets and the entire nearby park has turned into a toilet for them due to which local people are very agitated. The BJP team received complaints at RML Hospital and Gurdwara Bangla Sahib night shelters that those staying there have to shell out money.last_img read more

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