Explore further Corporate social responsibility and profit could stem from pricing strategy This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. In the first experiment riders at an amusement park were given the opportunity to buy pictures of themselves on the ride and were told they could pay whatever they wanted. Some were also told that half the proceeds would go to a charity; in those cases customers quite often paid more than those that weren’t told about the charity, though the number of sales were lower.In a second experiment, some customers on boat rides were asked to pay $15, some $5 and the others whatever they wanted, for pictures of themselves. Not surprisingly, the $15 group had few takers, while the $5 option proved popular, even more so than the PWYW option, as more chose to pass on the photos altogether when given the opportunity to pay whatever they liked.In the third experiment, diners at a restaurant were asked to pay whatever price they chose for their meal, but were split into two groups. One group paid the owner of the restaurant directly, while the other group was allowed to pay privately by dropping an envelope into a box. Surprisingly, the group that was able to pay anomalously generally paid more than did those that paid the owner directly.The researchers say taken as a whole, these experiments show that people are motivated by several factors when presented with a PWYW opportunity; the most basic of which, is the desire to uphold their opinion of themselves. Giving more than is necessary in an anonymous way causes people to feel good about themselves. On the other hand, the offer is less appealing when being asked to pay in view of others, such as fellow patrons or the owner of a restaurant. In such a scenario, people feel forced into paying a certain price. They also shy away from opportunities when they feel pressured to buy at a price that is too high, hence those that choose to not buy at all, even when allowed to pay whatever they wanted. More information: Pay-what-you-want, identity, and self-signaling in markets, PNAS, Published online before print April 23, 2012, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1120893109AbstractWe investigate the role of identity and self-image consideration under “pay-what-you-want” pricing. Results from three field experiments show that often, when granted the opportunity to name the price of a product, fewer consumers choose to buy it than when the price is fixed and low. We show that this opt-out behavior is driven largely by individuals’ identity and self-image concerns; individuals feel bad when they pay less than the “appropriate” price, causing them to pass on the opportunity to purchase the product altogether. © 2012 Phys.Org Citation: Pay-what-you-want choices appear to be linked to self image (2012, April 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-04-pay-what-you-want-choices-linked-image.html Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Phys.org) — Panera, the national restaurant chain most famous for its bread, has been in the news of late because they’ve decided to test the concept of allowing customers to pay whatever they want for bread, sandwiches and salads. The concept has proved so successful that Panera plans to open more restaurants that do likewise. To find out why such an idea might work, a group of researchers put together several field experiments to test their belief that the amount people pay for a pay-what-you-want (PWYW) opportunity, likely depends on their desire to boost their own self image. They have published a paper documenting their findings in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Monthly Archives: August 2019
Explore further Toshiba Announces 51GB Triple-Layer HD DVD-ROM Disc (Phys.org)—Multimedia artist Trevor Paglen, part of a group known as Creative Time, has created a gold-plated crystalline silicon disc with bit mapped re-creations of photographs etched onto its surface. The disc is to serve as a form of time capsule that will orbit Earth for billions of years—if all goes according to plan. The disc, containing 100 images and referred to as the “Last Pictures” project, has been attached to the EchoStar XVI satellite, scheduled for launch from the Baikonur Cosmodrome sometime over the next few months. © 2012 Phys.org The idea behind the project is to provide a record of human existence to intelligent life forms—as yet undiscovered—from other parts of the galaxy. The group at Creative Time notes on their website that they expect human civilization to disappear long before the disc is destroyed by the Sun, five billion years from now when the Sun becomes a red giant. They believe the disc, along with its images, will survive. Because, unlike the copper discs sent with the Voyager spacecraft, it’s made of silicon which has a crystalline structure.Paglen has been assembling the collection of pictures for nearly five years, speaking with scientists, artists, geologists, philosophers and mathematicians about ways in which to represent the history of Earth’s people. Despite his work, Paglen has also spoken publicly about his belief that no one will ever find the disc and view his work. Also, his assumption that the disc will survive in orbit for billions of years might have one fatal flaw: it’s quite possible that scientists will develop a method to clear the space debris circling the planet, consequently removing the EchoStar XVI satellite from its geosynchronous orbit long before we as a civilization go extinct. Which, of course, is also not a certainty. The pictures aren’t meant to offer a chronological history of the planet or of the human beings that evolved to become its dominant species. Instead, they are meant to convey a sense of who we are in the event that “anyone else” ever wants to know. Citation: Artist to send picture disc into orbit to serve as time capsule (2012, October 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-10-artist-picture-disc-orbit-capsule.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Journal information: Biology Letters Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2014 Phys.org Citation: Study finds bumblebees able to fly as high as Mount Everest (2014, February 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-02-bumblebees-high-mount-everest.html More information: Surpassing Mt. Everest: extreme flight performance of alpine bumble-bees, Published 5 February 2014. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0922AbstractAnimal flight at altitude involves substantial aerodynamic and physiological challenges. Hovering at high elevations is particularly demanding from the dual perspectives of lift and power output; nevertheless, some volant insects reside and fly at elevations in excess of 4000 m. Here, we demonstrate that alpine bumble-bees possess substantial aerodynamic reserves, and can sustain hovering flight under hypobaria at effective elevations in excess of 9000 m, i.e. higher than Mt. Everest. Modulation of stroke amplitude and not wingbeat frequency is the primary means of compensation for overcoming the aerodynamic challenge. The presence of such excess capacity in a high-altitude bumble-bee is surprising and suggests intermittent behavioural demands for extreme flight performance supplemental to routine foraging. (Phys.org) —A pair of researchers has found that alpine bumblebees are able to fly at altitudes in excess of twenty nine thousand simulated feet—higher than Mount Everest. In their paper published in the journal Biology Letters, Michael Dillon and Robert Dudley, of the University of California and the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, respectively, describe experiments they conducted with alpine bumblebees in pressure chambers and their theories as to why the bees have such high flying skills. Image credit: Wikipedia. 1st ‘zombie’ bees on East Coast found in Vt. (Update) Bees aren’t the best flyers, of course, they can zig-zag around and hop from flower to flower, but they could never compete with most birds or many other insects for that matter. But they are able to do something remarkable nonetheless—fly at extremely high altitude. To discover this remarkable ability, Dillon and Dudley traveled to the mountains of Sichuan, China; once there they captured several specimens of alpine bumblebees who normally live and fly at altitudes of over 10,000 feet. They put the bees (one at a time) into a pressure chamber and then pumper air out to simulate various altitudes. In so doing they found that two of the bees were able to fly around in the chamber in conditions that simulated 29,527 feet.To better understand how it was that the bees were able to fly under such conditions, each was filmed with a high speed camera and audio recorded (to measure wing beats). In studying the sound and video, the researchers found that the bees did not increase the speed of wing flapping but instead moved them in much deeper arcs, allowing for more scooping of air with each beat.The research duo suggest the bees high-flying technique is more likely put to a different use in the their natural environment—it would help in moving faster to escape being eaten, and even more perhaps in carrying heavy loads of nectar.Still a mystery is how the bees were able to maintain their wing flapping with far less oxygen to breathe—their metabolisms normally run much faster than most creatures—with less oxygen in the pressure tank, they should have literally run out of breath. Dillon and Dudley plan to conduct more experiments with the bees to answer that question.
We see the same pattern in modern collisions at large and small scales. This image shows the collision between India and Asia (the deformation front is shown in red again) and the associated stretching and extension behind the indonesian subduction zone. The collision continues even when the red subduction zone is choked by mountain building because the green areas retreat and allow the indian ocean floor to keep subducting. This keeps the engine running. Credit: Louis Moresi using the U.S. Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center, 2006. 2-minute Gridded Global Relief Data (ETOPO2v2), and imagery from the NASA Visible Earth Blue Marble Play Evolution of the model with the 80 Myr old slab (grey with yellow grid) and weaker overriding plate (blue with light blue grid). The indenter is shown in red. The strain rate field close to the surface is superimposed on the colouring of the material domains to show high strain rates as red tones and intermediate strain rates in yellow/green. Credit: Moresi et al. (Phys.org) —A team of researchers at the University of Melbourne in Australia has created a computer model that accurately predicts some aspects of mountain formation in early Australian history and has now described a new theory suggesting why the Himalayas continue to grow. In their paper, published in the journal Nature, the team describes how their model is challenging previously held theories regarding what happens when continental plates collide. Play Evolution of the model with the 80Myr old slab viewed from beneath the overriding plate looking towards the incoming indenting ribbon. The white/red balls are finite strain markers located under the oceanic plate at the start of the simulation. Credit: Moresi et al. Pleased with their findings, the team next turned to the Himalayas, home to most of the tallest mountains in the world. Scientists have been wondering for years why it is that India keeps pushing north into Eurasia, rather than stopping, as has occurred with the Alps. The new model showed India pushing parts of China and South-Eat Asia aside as it continues to move north, causing the continual rise in height of the mountains there. Explore further PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen The new computer model can’t prove what it illustrates but does appear to be a new step forward in explaining how our planet came to look like it does to today, and perhaps what it will look like in the future. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. PausePlay% buffered00:0000:00UnmuteMuteDisable captionsEnable captionsSettingsCaptionsDisabledQuality0SpeedNormalCaptionsGo back to previous menuQualityGo back to previous menuSpeedGo back to previous menu0.5×0.75×Normal1.25×1.5×1.75×2×Exit fullscreenEnter fullscreen Journal information: Nature More information: Dynamics of continental accretion, Nature (2014) doi:10.1038/nature13033AbstractSubduction zones become congested when they try to consume buoyant, exotic crust. The accretionary mountain belts (orogens) that form at these convergent plate margins have been the principal sites of lateral continental growth through Earth’s history. Modern examples of accretionary margins are the North American Cordilleras and southwest Pacific subduction zones. The geologic record contains abundant accretionary orogens, such as the Tasmanides1, along the eastern margin of the supercontinent Gondwana, and the Altaïdes, which formed on the southern margin of Laurasia2. In modern and ancient examples of long-lived accretionary orogens, the overriding plate is subjected to episodes of crustal extension and back-arc basin development, often related to subduction rollback3 and transient episodes of orogenesis and crustal shortening4, 5, 6, 7, coincident with accretion of exotic crust. Here we present three-dimensional dynamic models that show how accretionary margins evolve from the initial collision, through a period of plate margin instability, to re-establishment of a stable convergent margin. The models illustrate how significant curvature of the orogenic system develops, as well as the mechanism for tectonic escape of the back-arc region. The complexity of the morphology and the evolution of the system are caused by lateral rollback of a tightly arcuate trench migrating parallel to the plate boundary and orthogonally to the convergence direction. We find geological and geophysical evidence for this process in the Tasmanides of eastern Australia, and infer that this is a recurrent and global phenomenon.Press release Earth’s past gives clues to future changes The planet is still evolving, despite what our eyes tell us. The continents, for example, are all moving—some of them are even crashing into one another causing earthquakes and mountain formation. The surface of the Earth is divided into several pieces known as plates, each of which is still moving in one direction or another. When such plates run into others, one of two things can happen: one can slip beneath the other, or the two can smash together causing great upheaval which results in the formation of mountains. Scientists studying plate movement have been trying to predict what will happen when collisions occur—whether there will be subduction or mountain formation, and if it’s the latter, what sorts of features the mountains will have. In this new effort, the researchers in Australia appear to have taken a step forward in doing just that.To gain a better understanding of exactly what occurs when plates collide, the researchers built a computer model that used data and information compiled from prior research. They then added a new idea, in which continents can be squeezed upwards as other parts are pushed aside. They then set the model’s clock back in time to see if it could predict what we see around us today. Remarkably, in the case of one ancient small plate running into Australia, the model proved surprisingly accurate—creating realistic renditions of a mountain range that currently exists in eastern Australia—it even revealed how several formations could have come to exist that had defied earlier explanation. Citation: Computer model shows continents sometimes push others out of the way (w/ video) (2014, March 24) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-03-continents-video.html © 2014 Phys.org The researchers interpret the complicated geology of South Eastern Australia as having been formed by the collision of an exotic terrane (VanDieland) in the Silurian period over 400 million years ago. We see evidence for a swirling pattern in the geological fabric of Australia which supports this idea. Mountain building at the front of the collision (red) and crustal thinning and stretching along the side and behind the terrane (green) are consistent with our model. Credit: Louis Moresi, Peter Betts and Ross Cayley using data available from Geoscience Australia at the Geophysical Archive Data Delivery System
© 2014 Phys.org. All rights reserved. In the new study, the researchers successfully fabricated 100 x 100 arrays of vertical nanowires with radii of 80, 100, 120, and 140 nm, allowing the nanowires to absorb different wavelengths of light. The researchers demonstrated that these nanowire-based photodetectors can photograph color images of test scenes and the Macbeth ColorChecker card with a quality that is very similar to that obtained with a conventional camera.The new filter-free color imaging technique has some key advantages compared with the conventional filter technique, with perhaps the most important being a higher absorption efficiency that allows for higher pixel densities and higher resolution. The researchers predict that adding a bottom photodetector to the nanowire array would make it possible, in principle, for the device to absorb all incoming light and convert it into photocurrent. Such a device has the potential for extremely high photon efficiencies compared to filter-based devices, which by their nature absorb approximately half of the incoming light before it reaches the image sensor. The greater efficiency would then pave the way for cameras with higher resolutions. In addition to an improved efficiency, this approach simplifies the fabrication process. As the researchers explain, the pixels with different color responses can be defined at the same time through a single lithography step.Furthermore, the nanowire-based photodetectors also offer the opportunity for multispectral imaging. Cameras use multispectral imaging to capture light at different frequencies of the spectrum, including frequencies beyond the visible light range. With the new method, different parts of the spectrum can be targeted for absorption by fabricating nanowires with specific radii, a relatively simple process compared to fabricating filters and other methods. The researchers plan to work on further improving the photodetectors in the future.”We are currently working on incorporating substrate photodetectors to increase the efficiency as we mentioned above,” said coauthor Hyunsung Park at Harvard University. “In addition, we are developing elliptical nanowire-based photodetectors for polarization-resolved imaging. The major hurdle for commercialization is the higher dark current level of these devices, due to the fact they are produced by etching. This comes from the fact that there are many surface states, due to the large surface-to-volume ratio of the nanowires and damage to the silicon crystal structure from dry etching. We believe that this will be resolved in the future through alternative fabrication process or by adding passivation layers.” More information: Hyunsung Park, et al. “Filter-Free Image Sensor Pixels Comprising Silicon Nanowires with Selective Color Absorption.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/nl404379w The new approach takes advantage of the unique optical and electrical properties of one-dimensional semiconductor nanowires. Previous research has demonstrated that silicon nanowires absorb wavelengths of light that vary with the nanowire radius, allowing for control of light absorption by fabricating nanowires with controlled radii using a single lithography step. However, no color imaging experiments have been performed with silicon nanowires until now, partly due to the difficulty in assembling large numbers of nanowires into arrays. In the past few years, researchers have been investigating new ways to achieve color in digital cameras that don’t rely on conventional organic dye filters. In a new paper published in Nano Letters, a team of researchers from Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and Zena Technologies Inc., in Topsfield, Massachusetts, have presented a new filter-free approach to color imaging. The technique uses silicon nanowires with different radii to absorb specific wavelengths, and thus colors, of light and convert the light into photocurrent.”Our nanowire-based approach performs color imaging without conventional color filters,” coauthor Kenneth B. Crozier of Harvard University told Phys.org. “This has two major advantages. First, our approach simplifies the fabrication process. Nanowire-based image sensor pixels with different color responses can be defined at the same time through a single lithography step. This means no additional materials or repeated deposition steps are needed for separating colors. Second, our approach opens the way to increase the efficiency of an image sensor. Each nanowire captures light of a specific color, and converts it to photocurrent. If we add substrate photodetector, we can capture the remainder of the spectrum. In this way, the image sensor can have higher efficiency, as photons would be not discarded by absorptive filters.” Color image of test objects taken by the nanowire-based photodetector. Credit: Park, et al. ©2014 American Chemical Society Citation: Color pixels made of nanowires offer new paradigm for digital cameras (2014, April 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2014-04-pixels-nanowires-paradigm-digital-cameras.html Engineers create vibrant colors in vertical silicon nanowires (Left) Schematic of photodetectors based on vertical silicon nanowires. (Center) Magnified view of nanowires with radii of 80 nm, 100 nm, 120 nm, and 140 nm. (Right) Fabricated device mounted on PCB, with a magnified image in the inset. Credit: Park, et al. ©2014 American Chemical Society (Phys.org) —Most of today’s digital cameras achieve color by using red, green, and blue Bayer color filters through which light passes on its way to the camera’s image sensors, which then convert the light into electrical signals. Although this color filter technology is very widespread, it has some disadvantages related to durability, low absorption coefficient, and fabrication complexity. In addition, the absorbed light in the color filter cannot be converted into photocurrent. To maximize the efficiency in the trends of higher pixel density, this light needs to be converted to photocurrent. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nano Letters Explore further
Because they have no eyes, or brains to process visual information, it would seem that plants do not have much choice in which sorts of birds or insects transfer pollen to or from them, but in the case of one flowering plant, it appears a way has evolved nonetheless to ignore the pollen deposited by one species of bird, while favoring that from another.As part of their study of the plant, the researchers found that it was not very receptive to being artificially pollinated, this got them wondering if the plants were as choosy with natural pollinators, so they captured several of them and released them into an aviary where they could be studied more closely. In tracking which flowers were visited by different types of humming birds and one type of butterfly, the researchers found a pattern—the plants seemed more receptive to the hummingbird species that had long curved beaks. Further testing confirmed their suspicions. But how could the plants demonstrate a preference? Suspecting it had to do with the longer bills, the researchers tried pollinating the plants with a longer pipette and found it a more successful technique. Taking their study further, they found that a longer pipette or bill on a bird allowed for sucking up more of the nectar the plant was offering, and that turned out to be the means by which the plant did its choosing—those that took more nectar were in turn more likely to see their pollen accepted by the plant. Citation: Plant species evolved a way to determine most promising pollinator (2015, March 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-03-species-evolved-pollinator.html This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2015 Phys.org Heliconia tortuosa flowers Explore further As for why the plant would prefer long billed hummingbirds over those with short bills, the researchers suggest it is because those with long bills are the same species that travel farther while pollinating. That would mean the flower was more likely to receive pollen from a distant, unrelated plant, thus promoting diversity. Gene may help reduce GM contamination The green hermit hummingbird extracts nectar from a Heliconia tortuosa flower. Journal information: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (Phys.org)—A trio of researchers has found that one species of flower is able to pick and choose when it comes to accepting pollen from a variety of pollinators. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Matthew Betts and Adam Hadley with Oregon State University and John Kress with the Smithsonian Institution, describe their study of Heliconia tortuosa, a flowering plant native to Costa Rica, and what they discovered about its pollinating abilities. More information: Pollinator recognition by a keystone tropical plant Matthew G. Betts, PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1419522112AbstractUnderstanding the mechanisms enabling coevolution in complex mutualistic networks remains a central challenge in evolutionary biology. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a tropical plant species has the capacity to discriminate among floral visitors, investing in reproduction differentially across the pollinator community. After we standardized pollen quality in 223 aviary experiments, successful pollination of Heliconia tortuosa (measured as pollen tube abundance) occurred frequently when plants were visited by long-distance traplining hummingbird species with specialized bills (x¯ pollen tubes = 1.21 ± 0.12 SE) but was reduced 5.7 times when visited by straight-billed territorial birds (x¯ pollen tubes = 0.20 ± 0.074 SE) or insects. Our subsequent experiments revealed that plants use the nectar extraction capacity of tropical hummingbirds, a positive function of bill length, as a cue to turn on reproductively. Furthermore, we show that hummingbirds with long bills and high nectar extraction efficiency engaged in daily movements at broad spatial scales (∼1 km), but that territorial species moved only short distances (<100 m). Such pollinator recognition may therefore affect mate selection and maximize receipt of high-quality pollen from multiple parents. Although a diffuse pollinator network is implied, because all six species of hummingbirds carry pollen of H. tortuosa, only two species with specialized bills contribute meaningfully to its reproduction. We hypothesize that this pollinator filtering behavior constitutes a crucial mechanism facilitating coevolution in multispecies plant–pollinator networks. However, pollinator recognition also greatly reduces the number of realized pollinators, thereby rendering mutualistic networks more vulnerable to environmental change.Press release
The team at HRL suggest that the material could also eventually make its way into space-bound vehicles, for the very same reasons it would be useful in aircraft, to save on weight—plus its ability to compress might mean sending up objects that could be expanded after launch, saving on space in a cargo hold. © 2015 Phys.org The more an airplane weighs, the more fuel it uses during takeoff, while flying and during landing, thus efforts to create lighter materials to replace those already in use have been underway for quite some time. The development team has released a video of the new material (in which they refer to it as a 3D open cellular polymer structure) in action—demonstrating its lightness by placing a rectangular cuboid atop a dandelion. The team also points out that the material also has a high degree of absorption, which means it can be depressed and bounce back—another feature that would come in handy on airplanes.It appears at this time that Boeing is hoping the material can be used inside the cabin, rather than as a major structural component, e.g. in overhead bins, under the floor, or in other fixtures that are used to create an environment inside of a modern aircraft.In the earlier paper the researchers described making the material first by creating a template and then by coating it with electroless nickel plating—afterwards the template was removed via etching. The result was a material that got its strength from the lattice, similar to the way bones grow to be strong despite being light, though with the lattice it is taken down to the micro scale—the lattice was a network of extremely tiny tubes with walls that had a thickness of just 100 nanometers, all made of a nickel-phosphorus alloy, though it is still not clear if the same materials were used in the newly updated microlattice. Citation: Boeing demonstrates lightest metal ever (2015, October 15) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-10-boeing-lightest-metal.html HRL’s breakthrough development of ultralight microlattice materials recognized Journal information: Science Explore further (Phys.org)—Airplane maker Boeing has unveiled what it calls the “The Lightest Metal Ever”—called microlattice, the material is a construct that is 99.99 per cent air. It has been developed by Boeing’s HRL Laboratories along with colleagues at the University of California and the California Institute of Technology. The material has been developed as a way to reduce weight on airplanes or even rockets—a paper describing the development of the material was written by the team and published in the journal Science back in 2011—though the researchers have not yet revealed what sort of changes have been made since that time. More information: www.boeing.com/features/2015/1 … est-metal-10-15.page This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
© 2019 Science X Network Credit: RIKEN This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: A closer look at the molecular mechanism that switches control of activation of eIF2 by eIF2B (2019, May 3) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2019-05-closer-molecular-mechanism-eif2-eif2b.html Impaired energy metabolism linked with initiation of plaques in Alzheimer’s brain Cells continuously undergo a process known as translation in which ribosomes in cytoplasm synthesize proteins after transcription of DNA to RNA. But sometimes, this process is interrupted by an external event. Such events are known as stress—exposure to ultraviolet light is one common example. The researchers note that translation uses a lot of energy, thus it makes sense for cells to shut it down when a stress event occurs—it saves energy and reduces the chances of errors in the proteins that are synthesized.Prior research has shown that when a cell “senses” stress, the translational initiation factor eIF2 is phosphorylated. Under normal circumstances, eIF2 is activated by eIF2B, another translational initiation factor. But when the cell is under stress and eIF2 is phosphorylated, the function of eIF2B is inhibited, preventing translation. Scientists have been working to understand the molecular mechanism involved in discontinuation of translation due to stress, but the means of activation of eIF2 by eIF2B is still unknown. In this new effort, the researchers have found a way to look inside the cell nucleus to see what actually happens as syntheses of proteins ceases during stress.The researchers observed the structure of both eIF2 and eIF2B using cryo-electron microscopy. Doing so showed that the orientation of eIF2 as it was bound to eIF2B differed greatly depending on whether eIF2 had been phosphorylated. They also found that eIF2B had a two-fold symmetric structure and that the phosphorylation of eIF2 could be considered a mechanism that not only prevented the activation of phosphorylated eIF2, but also prevented the activation of other translational initiation factors. A team of researchers at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research in Japan has developed a tool to prevent neurogenerative diseases. They have demonstrated a way to observe the molecular mechanism that switches control of activation of eIF2 by eIF2B when a cell undergoes stress. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their use of cryo-electron microscopy to better understand what happens to cells that are exposed to stress. Explore further Journal information: Science More information: Kazuhiro Kashiwagi et al. Structural basis for eIF2B inhibition in integrated stress response, Science (2019). DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw4104
While the rest of the Delhi swelters in the heat, the Imperial gave a lucky few a luxurious break to taste some zesty green recipes and join heads to talk environmental issues. Celebrating this ethos and committing to the environment, The Imperial had organized Green Luncheon for opinion makers to share a range of initiatives which the hotel has applied to reduce carbon footprint, have effective waste management, sustain recycle measures and energy conservation etc. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’ The luncheon included specialties like vegetable and cream cheese spanakopitas, sautéed greens with sesame and brown garlic, spinach and fresh ricotta cannelloni with butter garlic, ratatouille, Vanilla panacotta and some salads to die for. The special menu was designed by Chef Prem Kumar Pogakula- Executive Sous Chef The Imperial New Delhi.‘The Imperial has always demonstrated a commitment to environment conservation, whilst providing its guests with experiences which will enhance the awareness and understanding of the environment. We installed solar panels for heating water in guest rooms which is extremely efficient in saving energy, emits less carbon and thereby is environment friendly,’ said Vijay Wanchoo Senior Executive Vice President and General Manager. He further said ‘The Imperial key initiatives and significant efforts have been modeled to encourage healthy tourism and eco balance. An exclusive lobby décor for the occasion for the world Environment week is designed to create awareness amongst guests to contribute towards environment conservation and be conscious about it.’ He also shared few future green initiatives on the occasion, soon to be implemented in the hotel. The special recipes made for the World Environment day are available in the 1911 restaurant along with the perfect salad spread. The light eats are best suited for summer and will be available in the restaurant till 30 June. The mint and raw mango shooter and the wild mushroom and asparagus stew get the thumbs up from us. Go green, reduce the carbon foorprints as the experts put it and head over for this meal – you won’t regret it!
The Delhi BJP on Thursday visited night shelters situated at ISBT, Ajmeri Gate Chowk, Nehru Place, Gole Dankhana, Sultanpuri, Mangolpuri, Rohini and Patparganj and found that the arrangements were not at all satisfactory. Later, they wrote a letter to the Lieutenant-Governor (LG) Najeeb Jung seeking his attention towards the condition of these night shelters and demanding improvements.In the letter, BJP state president Satish Upadhyay said that it is very regrettable that in spite of strict directions from the High Court between 2012 to 2014, during the tenure of the then Congress and AAP governments and bureaucrats respectively, the condition of these night shelters have become bad to worse. He said that the visiting team of Delhi BJP found that most of the night shelters either did not have toilets or are very dirty and cannot be used. There is an urgent need to work for the improvement of these night shelters. Also Read – Company director arrested for swindling Rs 345 croreIn the Nehru Place night shelter, the BJP team found that a particular community had converted the night shelter into their 24 hour house and installed make shift ovens. There was no water supply in the toilets and the entire nearby park has turned into a toilet for them due to which local people are very agitated. The BJP team received complaints at RML Hospital and Gurdwara Bangla Sahib night shelters that those staying there have to shell out money.
Maharashtra CM Devendra Fadnavis has said the proposed Navi Mumbai International Airport will be operational by 2019.“As all the environmental-related permissions are cleared for the Airport, this project will be operational by 2019,” Fadnavis posted on Twitter on Sunday morning.The project will be built on public-private partnership (PPP) on a land of around 1,160 hectares, out of which 592 hectares have been acquired and all clearances will be done by January 2015, he said. After the completion of first phase, 10 million people are expected to use it annually. The final phase will have a capacity to accommodate 60 million passengers annually, the CM said. “Seeing the rise in passengers, Mumbai’s Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport will also be extended to accommodate 40 million passengers, annually,” Fadnavis further tweeted.
Kolkata: Mystery shrouds the death of a pregnant woman whose body was found inside her father’s house in Phoolbagan in Kolkata on Friday.Sources said the woman’s in-law’s had lodged a missing complaint with the police in Howrah a couple of days ago.Her husband came to her father’s house in Phoolbagan on Thursday. But he also went missing after a few hours.Finally, the victim’s sister went to Phoolbagan police station on Friday morning and informed the police that she couldn’t find the woman.Police initiated a probe and the woman’s body was found from a room of her father’s house. The body was found on the floor just beside a bed in the room. The body was wrapped in a bedcover. It has been sent for an autopsy.There were severe injury marks on her body. Police suspect that it is a case of murder.
Kolkata: Eleven goldsmiths from West Bengal, who had been stranded in Iran for the past several months, returned on Wednesday following intervention of the Centre. The youths from Hooghly, Cooch Behar, Howrah and Burdwan districts had gone to Iran in February but their travel documents were allegedly seized by their employer, a member of an NGO National Anti-trafficking Committee (NATC) said. The NGO had been trying to bring back the youths since mid-October. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal life “We had informed the ministry of external affairs, Prime Ministers Office, West Bengal Chief Minister’s office, ADG CID and Embassy of Islamic Republic of Iran, New Delhi. Finally, their return was possible with the effort of all concerned as the company which had taken them to Iran agreed to pay their air fare following the intervention of MEA,” the NATC member said. “After reaching Iran in February 2018, things were fine in the initial months. But after two months, our salaries were stopped and we had no money to fend for ourselves,” Sheikh Moinuddin, a returnee, said. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killed The goldsmiths did not receive salaries for almost five months and had to do with little food, the NATC official said adding even their passports were taken away by the owner of the firm, where they worked. “We have been waiting for this moment. Thanks to the MEA and other authorities to come to our aid,” Sheikh Salim, brother-in-law of Sheikh Mounuddin said. Saheed Ali Sheikh of Pandua in Hooghly district, whose son Enamul was among the 11 members who returned, said it was a great relief to see his youngest son back. The 12 goldsmiths were rescued from Chabahar in Iran. While 11 of them returned, one is still stuck due to visa problems.
Kolkata: Buoyed by the success of project Muslin, the West Bengal Khadi and Village Industries Board (WBKVIB) is taking up a project for the development of cotton khadi in Bengal. The project will encompass 14 of the 23 states in Bengal.”Our main objective is to train artisans in churning out products as per the present market demand. We will provide them with infrastructure and most importantly, create a platform for marketing their products,” said Mrityunjoy Bandyopadhyay, CEO of WBKVIB. Also Read – 3 injured, flight, train services hit as rains lash BengalThe 14 districts that have been earmarked for the project are Birbhum, Malda, Murshidabad, Hooghly, East and West Burdwan, South 24-Parganas, North 24-Parganas, Howrah, West Midnapore, East Midnapore, Nadia, South Dinajpur and North Dinajpur. Around 4,950 artisans will get the training and the project cost will be to the tune of Rs 16.52 crore. It may be mentioned that there are about 115 Khadi institutions and societies working in the area of cotton khadi production in Bengal at present. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedThe artisans are now mostly producing traditional items of white khadi and conventional items of cotton khadi. “At present, there is a huge demand for cotton khadi, both in domestic and international markets, mainly due to its eco-friendly nature. We will assist them in integrating modern design, equip them in order to cater to the demands and bridge the gap between supply and demand.” a senior official of WBKVIB said. Hand-spun and hand woven cotton khadi fabric bear a unique feeling and make consumers very comfortable as the fabric feels warm during winters and cool during summers. According to a senior official of WBKVIB, some of the challenges that are affecting the sector include: stiff competition with power loom products as the cost of production in khadi sector is high. “We will take adequate steps to overcome the challenges, such as lack of storage facility, lack of quality control and testing facility, absence of branding etc,” the official maintained. It may be mentioned that production of khadi played an important role in the Indian Freedom Movement to discourage the Indians from wearing foreign clothes.
Kolkata: With the arrival of spring, resulting in frequent change in weather conditions, thousands of Kolkatans are down with a spate of viral diseases.”During the spring, with the transition from winter to summer, it becomes difficult for the body to adapt to such fluctuating weather conditions. An ounce of precaution can reduce the possibility of multiple diseases such as pneumonia, common cold, measles, diarrhea, and pox,” said physician Swapan Biswas. Also Read – Bose & Gandhi: More similar than apart, says Sugata BoseOn Thursday, the minimum temperature in the city remained at 17 degrees Celsius, while the maximum temperature was two degrees more than the average at 30 degrees Celsius. The maximum humidity remained at 89 percent, while the minimum humidity came down to 33 percent with no rainfall in sight. While on Wednesday, Kolkata witnessed a normal maximum temperature of 29.2 degrees Celsius and minimum temperature remained 2 degrees below the normal temperature at 15.6 degrees Celsius. Biswas said such diseases are a common occurrence among children and old people as they are highly susceptible to spring sickness. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: Mamata”During this season, it is important to maintain the room temperature as well as avoid coming in contact with direct sunlight. At night, it is advisable to keep a blanket at our disposal and also to wear warm clothes. It is important to drink at least three to four litres of water every day and to consume fruits which are rich in Vitamin C after lunch. These fruits can also be substituted with vitamin tablets.” He further said: “To avoid falling ill due to diarrhea which is a common occurrence among children during this season, it is recommended to maintain a proper food hygiene by avoiding stale food and also using a hand wash”. Although the state of West Bengal which has remained dry for quite some time, it will witness a spurt of rainfall at the end of this week. Moloy Bose, an official of the Regional Meteorological department in Alipore said, “Rainfall activity is likely to make an appearance around February 16 in the districts of Purulia, Bankura, Birbhum, West Midnapore, Jhargram and other districts of North Bengal. Moreover, the city of Kolkata is likely to see light rains on February 16 and 17”, He said: “The rainfall will last from February 16 to February 18 and although, it may recede from Gangetic Bengal, it will rain in districts of North Bengal.”
This world book fair at New Delhi, National Book Trust (NBT) and Snapdeal have come together with an aim to inculcate reading habit amongst the underprivileged kids through their initiative ‘Har Hath Ek Kitab’. On this occasion, NBT and Snapdeal have launched an online portal, www.harhathekkitab.com to expand its outreach, so that people from across the country can support the movement by gifting books for underprivileged kids. During the fair, which will go on till January 14, Snapdeal and NBT will be promoting this initiative through various activity corners organised at different parts of Pragati Maidan. People interested in donating towards this program can either visit Snapdeal’s stall no. 63, Hall Hangar or they can just go to the website. Through the website or the stall, people can choose to gift anywhere between four to 2000 books at subsidised price of Rs 25 per book. Once a contribution is made, NGOs select relevant books for kids from a catalog of 600+ books by the NBT. These books are then dispatched to kids across India where reading among kids is facilitated by the NGO staff. Several Kids from various NGOs across NCR will also be exploring the fair and attending various workshops being organised as a part of this initiative. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfUnder the pilot phase of Har Hath Ek Kitab, 10,000+ books have been contributed for kids across India. With more than 10 NGOs involved – Teach for India, Goonj, Bhumi, 17000ft Foundation, etc. books have been delivered to kids across India from Ladakh to Chennai. During this book fair, Snapdeal aims to reach the milestone of 50,000 books.”We are excited to power the technology for the launch of ‘Har Haath Ek Kitaab’.com and are confident that the new site will enable people from anywhere in the world to donate books to young children. Snapdeal Sunshine aims to enrich life of many Indian citizens and this partnership is just another step in the direction,” said Rajnish Wahi, Sr. V.P Corporate Affairs and Communications, Snapdeal.Baldeo Sharma, Chairman, National Book Trust, India said, “On the occasion of New Delhi World Book Fair 2018, which promotes reading culture in the country, we have joined hands with Snapdeal for a noble cause to launch www.harhathekkitab.com. We are confident that this program will inspire people to donate books to enhance the knowledge of children and shape their future in a better way.”
The mother’s microbiome – the collection of microscopic organisms that live inside us – can determine the risk of autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders in her children, suggests a study.The study raises the possibility that preventing forms of autism could be as simple as an expectant mother modifying her diet or taking custom probiotics.The findings showed that an unhealthy microbiome in the mother can make her unborn child susceptible to neurodevelopmental disorders. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfBut, blocking a particular inflammatory molecule interleukin-17a (IL-17a) produced by the immune system can help halt the development of such disorders in lab mice. “We determined that the microbiome is a key contributor in determining susceptibility (to autism-like disorders), so it suggests that you could target either the maternal microbiome or this inflammatory molecule IL-17a,” said lead researcher John Lukens, from the University of Virginia in the US. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsive”You could also use this (IL-17a) as a biomarker for early diagnosis,” he added, in the paper published in the Journal of Immunology.While blocking IL-17a might offer a way to prevent autism, Lukens said that the path carries much more risk. It is because blocking the molecule “could make you susceptible to all kinds of infections”. And doing so during pregnancy could have complex ripple effects on a child’s development that scientists would need to sort out, he said. However, the microbiome can be modified easily, either through diet, probiotic supplements or faecal transplant. All of these approaches seek to restore a healthy equilibrium among the different microorganisms that live in the gut, the researchers noted.”In terms of translating our work to humans, I think the next big step would be to identify features of the microbiome in pregnant mothers that correlate with autism risk,” Lukens said. “I think the really important thing is to figure out what kind of things can be used to modulate the microbiome in the mother as effectively and safely as we can.”
The 37th Edition of India Carpet Expo, organised by Carpet Export Promotion Council, was inaugurated on March 10, 2019, at NSIC Exhibition Ground, Okhla, New Delhi. The event began with lamp lighting ceremony by Raghvendra Singh, IAS, Secretary, Ministry of Textiles, Government of India, in the august presence of Shantmanu, IAS, Development Commissioner (Handicrafts). The Expo is organised with an aim to promote the cultural heritage and weaving skills of Indian hand-made carpets, and other floor coverings among the visiting overseas carpet buyers. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfSpeaking at the event, Raghvendra Singh said: “We are very glad that CEPC organises this Expo twice every year to promote Indian weavers worldwide. Every year Expo generates a huge amount of business. We have everything handmade and hand weaved here, which is the major attraction to the foreign buyers.” He further appreciated the new innovations and display by the members. Chairman, CEPC highlighted that carpet industry was not incorporated in the recent decision taken by cabinet for extending ROSL (Rebate on State Levies) to the handmade carpet industry. Raghvendra Singh, Secretary Textiles immediately called for a meeting on March 11, 2019 with the representatives of the Handmade Carpet Industry to present their case and assured his best possible support to the Handmade Carpet Industry. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveShantmanu, IAS, Development Commissioner (Handicrafts) appreciated the efforts made by Chairman and Committee of Administration in organising India Carpet Expo on such a large scale and expressed hope that the benefit will ultimately go to the artisans and weavers. Mahavir Pratap Sharma, Chairman, CEPC said, “India carpet expo is an ideal platform for International Carpet Buyers, buying Agents, architects and Indian carpet manufacturers and exporters to meet and establish long term business relationship. This exhibition is a crucial step towards taking Indian exports of handmade carpet to much greater and newer heights. We have also set up a special theme pavilion wherein the experts of the industry are showcasing the process of carpet weaving through the concept of ergonomic and flexible tufting frame.” Sharma further added that orders worth over a thousand crores are expected to be executed. New fall-winter colors and designs are being showcased at the Carpet Expo. India Carpet Expo is one of the largest handmade carpet fairs in Asia that offers a unique platform for the buyers to source the best handmade carpets, rugs and other floor coverings under one roof. With the participation of over 305 exhibitors, it has become a popular destination worldwide for handmade carpets. A record number of 152 overseas carpet buyers from around 60 countries registered their presence on the first day of the fair. It is the endeavor of the Council to provide an exclusive business environment to both carpet importers as well as manufacturer-exporters, which ultimately will benefit about two million weavers and artisans employed in this highly labour intensive rural based MSME cottage industry.
Kolkata: The tea garden at Eco Park, the only of its kind in south Bengal has become a prime location over the years.Though tea plantation is carried out in some areas in the plains in north Bengal, the scientists of Bidhannagar Krishi Vidyalaya, Tea Board, Andrew Yule and workers of local nurseries toiled hard to grow tea in south Bengal where the tea leaves cannot grow because of scorching sun rays. In the first year many of the leaves did not survive. Also, the leaves did not survive because of the acidic soil. Also Read – Rs 13,000 crore investment to provide 2 lakh jobs: MamataTo combat the situation shade trees were planted. Soil was brought from north Bengal. The supply of water to the budding leaves has been provided by drip irrigation with automatic controller. The tea garden has come up on 3 acres of land. An exquisite tea lounge designed by renowned architect Dulal Mukherjee has been constructed. The tea lounge resembles one of the tea bungalows of Darjeeling. Tea leaves processed and packed are made for gifting. The participants of different programmes which are organized by the Housing and Infrastructure Development Corporation ( Hidco) are given a packet of tea as gift. People visiting the tea gardening are not only enjoying the tea but are buying the gift packs for their near and dear ones. Also Read – Lightning kills 8, injures 16 in stateThe tea lounge will be thoroughly renovated and the new look tea lounge is likely to be ready before the pujas. Eco Park has become the most popular destination in and around Kolkata. The park stands on 480 acres of land surrounded by 104 acres of water body. It is the biggest urban park in the country. The miniature of seven wonders, the Japanese garden, butterfly park, rose garden and the replica of Ghoom railway station and the toy train have attracted the tourists all over the country.
You don’t hear about it much anymore, but an unsolved series of murders in 1982 changed the way people take medicine and changed their thoughts about how safe they were in the comfort of their own homes. In Chicago that year, seven people died from ingesting Tylenol which had been laced with cyanide. In the following years, copycat crimes claimed the lives of seven more people throughout the United States. In only one case, in Washington state in 1987, was someone accused of a crime and convicted.The “Tylenol Murders” panicked the nation, much like the case of George Metesky, the “Mad Bomber” in New York in the 1940s and 50s, when Metesky, a disgruntled man with a host of mental issues, left bombs in random locations throughout New York City, injuring 15 people. In 1982, no one was sure whether the medicine they opened would be the death of them or a cure.PillsThe Tylenol case began when a 12-year-old girl, Mary Kellerman, from the Chicago suburb of Elk Grove, went to her parents very early in the morning on September 29, 1982, feeling ill. They gave her one extra-strength Tylenol. By 7 am, Mary was dead.The same day claimed a second victim, 27-year-old Adam Janus who also lived in the Chicago suburbs. He was found dead in his house of what was initially believed to be a massive heart attack. His brother and sister-in-law sped to his home to console Adam’s family, and, likely due to the stress of the situation, developed headaches. They each took one Tylenol from the same bottle that Adam had used. Stanley died shortly after, and Theresa two days later.Over the next few days, three more people died under strange circumstances: like Mary Kellerman and Adam Janus, they were all under 35 and in relatively good health. Police soon tied the deaths together: they all had ingested Tylenol pills that had been laced with potassium cyanide.ChicagoIn 1980s Chicago, no one was thinking cyanide. Why would they? But the local police quickly began to put the pieces together and issued warnings for people in the Chicago area not to take Tylenol.McNeil Consumer Products, a subsidiary of Johnson & Johnson which made the pain killer, went on media both local and nationwide and issued a recall of all Tylenol products. This meant 31 million bottles of the drug.Just before the murders, Tylenol was considered almost a wonder drug for headaches and other minor maladies and took up 35 percent of the over the counter market. After the deaths, sales of Tylenol counted for just 8 percent – a huge hit in profit.Mosquito cyanide jarOver the next few weeks, other bottles that were tainted were found in Chicago grocery stores and pharmacies. Fortunately, no other deaths were attributed to poisoned Tylenol. In response to the deaths, Johnson & Johnson introduced what we now take for granted: the “tamper-proof” top under the lid of all medicines.Related Video: The gruesome reasons behind the Red, White and Blue barber poleOther drug companies followed suit (some slowly), no one knowing if they were immune or the next target for a murderer still at large, or others. Other changes took place which we now take for granted. The easy to swallow “caplet”? A result of murder, the caplet being harder to penetrate than a capsule or standard pill (the medicine ingested by the victims had been in capsule form: someone opened them, added cyanide, closed them up and closed the bottle).Despite a nationwide manhunt, no one was ever caught. One person, James Lewis, claimed to be the killer, and wrote a “ransom” type letter, threatening to kill more people unless he received $1 million. An investigation of his movements showed that he could not have been the killer. However, he did serve over a decade in prison on extortion charges.In 1983 Congress passed the “Tylenol bill” which made it a federal offense to tamper with medicine or any other consumer products. As a matter of fact, not only did medical companies install tamper-proof seals, but other businesses, most notably food companies, began to put a seal on many of their products. That annoying seal on the ketchup and mustard? A direct reaction to the Tylenol murders of 1982. Greater controls on deadly poisons in veterinary hospitals, research facilities, etc., followed as well.8 hour pills. Photo by Deborah Austin CC BY 2.0The only conviction regarding medicine tampering deaths came in 1987 when an unhappy and unstable housewife killed her husband with tainted Excedrin tablets. Not only her husband but another woman (unrelated to the married couple in any way) died from ingesting the tablets.To this day, no one has ever been charged for the crime. Police believe the poison was added after the drug left the factory. They believe the killer took (or bought) the drugs, introduced the poison, then returned the pills to the shelf. That’s about all they know.Read another story from us: Radium used to be All the Rage – Until the Devastating Case of the ‘Radium Girls’For a time in 1982, people were leery about almost everything they bought. Macabre jokes made the rounds. Johnson & Johnson lost millions, but they way in which they handled the crisis was a model of how to handle a bad situation, rather than what we so often read about – like the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, for example. In business schools around the world, Johnson & Johnson’s handling of the situation is taught as a model.